SKAKAVAC – PRIMJER GEOLOŠKE BAŠTINE U TRIJASU OKOLINE SARAJEVA Ispis

 

SKAKAVAC – AN EXAMPLE OF GEOLOGICAL RICHES IN TRIASSIC OF SARAJEVO AREA   

 

Dr.   Safet Čičić, prof. emeritus, Grbavička 127 A,  Sarajevo

 

Dr. Ferid Skopljak , viši asistent, Građevinski fakultet  Sarajevo,   

 

 

Sažetak :       

 

         Vodopad Skakavac se nalazi u jugozapadnom dijelu planine Ozren, na sjeveroistočnoj strani vrha Bukovik (k.1532 m). Udaljen je od Sarajeva oko 25 km, u pravcu sjeveroistoka. Teren u području vodopada je izgrađen od raznovrsnih stijena trijasa, jursko-krednog fliša i deluvijalnih taloga. Geološkim kartiranjem su izdvojeni pješčari, glinci i laporci donjeg trijasa (T1), karbonati anizijskog kata (T21) i raznovrsni sedimenti ladinika, zastupljeni tufitičnim i laporovitim pješčarima, glincima, laporcima, tankim slojevima rožnaca i pločastim krečnjacima sa muglama rožnaca(T22). Jursko-kredni (J,K) fliš ima veliko rasprostranjenje u zoni vodopada i, naročito, istočno i sjeverozapadno od njega. Deluvijalne naslage su izdvojene na manjoj površini, između izvora i vodopada Skakavac. 

              Tektonski sklop terena je izuzetno složen. Naslage trijasa su urbane, rasjednute i horizontalno kretane. Između Bukovika i Skakavca je formirana sinklinala u čijem jezgru su karbonati, uglavnom sprudni krečnjaci anizika. U dnu su izolatorski laporovito-glinovito pješčarski sedimenti verfena, a u povlati pomenute ladinske naslage, slabe vodopropusnosti. Skladno tome krečnjaci i dolomite anizika su glavni kolektor i rezervoar podzemnih voda.

   - Vodopad Skakavac je formiran na strmom rasjednom otsjeku lijeve strane Peračkog potoka. Njegova visina je 98 m, a proticaj vode varira od 10 – 50 l/sec. Prihranjuje se iz istoimenog izvora, koji se nalazi oko 300 m iznad vodopada.

   - Vodopad Skakavac je među najimpresivnijim geomorfološkim strukturama Bosne i Hercegovine, ali i šire u Dinaridima. To je zaista rijedak spomenik prirode. Međutim, slabo je proučen i iskorišten i pored nesporne vrijednosti i šansi za razvoj turizma i plansko korištenje mineralno-sirovinskih resursa. Ovim radom se, ustvari, po prvi put geološka problematika Skakavca, prikazuje u javnom geološkom glasilu. 

  - Po svojim geološkim, geomorfološkim i hidrogeološkim obilježjima vodopad Skakavac je geopark lokalnog, državnog i međunarodnog značaja. Zbog toga, i ne čekajući donošenje odgovarajućih propisa, treba preduzeti mjere rigorozne zaštite ove baštine prirode, te izradu projekata njenog racionalnog korištenja i zaštite.    

Ključne riječi: vodopad Skakavac, trijas, jura-kreda, deluvijum, karbonati, fliš, sinklinala, rasjedi, navlaka, hidrogeološka rejonizacija, prirodna rijetkost, zaštita              

 

 

Abstract:  

  

           The Skakavac waterfall is located in the southwestern part of Mt. Ozren, on the northeastern side of Bukovik summit (elevation 1,532 m). It is 25 kilometers away from Sarajevo to the northeast. The terrain in the waterfall zone is made of a variety of rocks of the Triassic, Jurassic-Cretaceous flysch and talus deposits. The following components were isolated in the process of geologic mapping: sandstone, claystone and marl of the Lower Triassic (T1), carbonates of the Anisian (T21) and various sediments of the Ladinian, represented by tuff and marl sandstone, claystone, marl, thin layers of cherts and layer limestone with knobs of cherts (T22). The Jurassic-Cretaceous (J,C) flysch is widespread in the waterfall zone and, in particular, to the east and northwest from it. The talus deposits are isolated in a smaller area, between the spring and the waterfall of Skakavac. 

                  The tectonic structure of the terrain is exceptionally complex. The Triassic deposits are folded, affected by fault and horizontally positioned. A syncline was formed between Bukovik and Skakavac and its core contains carbonates, mainly sand-shelf limestone of the Anisian. On the floor there are isolating marl and clay sandstone deposits of Verfen and in the upper layer there are the aforementioned Ladinian deposits of poor water permeability. Consequently, the limestone and dolomites of the Anisian are the main collector and reservoir of groundwaters.

   - The Skakavac waterfall was formed on a steep fault section of the left bank of Perački Brook (Perački potok). Its altitude is 98 meters and the flow of water varies between 10 and 15 liters per second. It is being reinforced from the spring of the same name, located around 300 meters above the waterfall.

    - The Skakavac waterfall is one of the most striking geomorphological structures of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Dinaric Alps. It is a truly exceptional natural phenomenon. However, it has been poorly explored and underutilized despite its indisputable value and prospects for development of tourism and planned utilization of mineral and raw material resources. As a matter of fact, this paper is the first time that the geological structure of Skakavac is presented in a geology paper.

 - By its geological, geomorphological and hydro-geological characteristics, the Skakavac waterfall is a geological park of the local, national and international importance. That is why it is necessary to undertake measures of strict protection of this natural treasure without waiting for the pertinent legislation to be passed, and to draft projects of its rational utilization and protection.  

       Key Words: the Skakavac waterfall, the Triassic, the Jurassic-Cretaceous, diluvium, carbonates, flysch, syncline, faults, overthrust, hydrogeological zones, natural phenomenon, protection  

 

LAST_UPDATED2